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Read More From Benjamin L. Stewart, Ph D

In addition he undertakes consultancy projects in art and design education for a number of organisations. A past member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Art and Design Education and its Reviews Editor, he is actively engaged in research and publishing in the field of nineteenth century art and design education.

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He was the —96 President of the International Society for Education through Art and has been a member of its executive committee in several capacities. He has served on national committees and as a consultant to government agencies. He completed a Ph. His interest in the history, theory and practice of art education is evident in many publications and conference presentations both here and abroad, and in his supervision and examination of masters and doctoral students.

Formerly a Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Education, University of Warwick, he is now retired, painting full-time and working as an independent scholar. Histories of Art and Design Education: Cole to Coldstream was a collection of essays by British and North American authors dealing with a highly diverse set of topics and, as the title implies, covering a lengthy time span.

There is therefore an element of intention in the similarity of titles, in that this book too has those features; indeed a number of the authors who contributed to the earlier volume also have work included here. Although the authorship in this book is principally British, contributions also come from as far afield as North and South America and Japan.

A secondary reason for the similarity is to foster a sense of continuity where, in Britain, books dealing with histories of art and design education remain something of a rarity. The chapters in this collection are, with two exceptions, drawn from articles previously published in the International Journal of Art and Design Education iJADE over the last ten years, and they are therefore highly representative of research in the field during that period.

The subjects covered are, at first sight, diverse but they are brought together here under section headings that propose a structured division of interests. This has emerged from the progressive maturation of research in the field of art and design education history over the past decade. These headings are intended to help the reader navigate their way through the book, but also to indicate a further evolutionary growth of the discipline evident in journals like iJADE. Rethinking the history of art and design education necessitates an on-going reevaluation of our historiography. There is nothing new in this statement, it should be emphasised.

The case for revisionism has periodically been made over the past twenty years, most significantly at the two Penn State Conferences on the subject in and In the conference there were three papers concerned with historiography. In the third of these papers, by Elliot Eisner, the readiness of historians of art and design education to engage in this complex of debates had at that time, as he made clear, been disappointingly slight. On both sides of the Atlantic the discipline has developed significantly.

This collection of essays represents a further contribution to that response. Rafael Cardoso examines the development of publications to teach drawing in Britain during the middle of the nineteenth century.

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As printing costs were reduced and literacy rates rose these books were instrumental in democratizing art education in the nineteenth century. That he also notes the perceived importance in these books of hand and eye training, chimes with the second essay in this section. Based upon her impressive collection of some books and a thousand pieces of art education related ephemera now housed in the Huntingdon Library in Pasadena, California , she seeks to discover why it was that nineteenth century Americans placed so much importance on learning to draw.

In the second essay I am concerned with the issue of social class. In earlier histories of art and design education the relevant social groups are often rather casually ascribed to either the working class or middle class. I am particularly concerned with the social interactions identified elsewhere between the working class, the artisan and the middle class, and find important parallels in the evidence given to this select committee that illuminates our understanding of these issues.

His recent book An Illustrated History of Moseley School of Art: Art Education in Birmingham has added greatly to our historical understanding of art and design education in this key centre. The first of his two essays on the Birmingham School of Art during the nineteenth and early twentieth century that form this section, looks at the evolution of art and design education in Birmingham from — The presence of an unusually substantial archive at Birmingham provided the evidence to question this interpretation. Swift reveals that despite an organisation in London that was centralist and controlling in its outlook, Birmingham perhaps alone in this respect — there are too few archives to generalise was progressively proactive in determining its future.

His second essay examines the place of women at the Birmingham Art School in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Female students at Birmingham were enthusiastic and successful beneficiaries of this development.

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Swift shows how it was that despite this success at Birmingham, gender stereotyping proved to be the ultimate stumbling block. The origins of the ongoing battle that public art and design education has been forced to wage to secure recognition of its value to society can be found here, not least in the efforts to secure academic parity with other disciplines.

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The period leading up to and the Education Act of that year was one of significant engagement in educational policy and influence for the NSAM in Britain, but at a global level it was also a time to reflect on the failure of the human enterprise to prevent two world wars. As Steers makes clear a seminal figure in the establishment of InSEA was Herbert Read whose experience as a soldier in the First World War and horror at a second such war in his lifetime shaped his philosophy of art education.

A past president of InSEA himself, Steers is well placed to make this timely analysis of the organisation. Bruce Holdsworth looks at the remarkable career of Richardson and her influence on art education in schools during the first half of the twentieth century. Unlike Marion Richardson, whose theories were informed by her practice, the subject of the third essay in this section had no practical experience of teaching art. It too influenced both the subject of the final chapter in this section and the pivotal figure involved.

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By the s it underpinned almost all art and design education in the country becoming the blueprint for the curriculum offered in first Pre-diploma, and then Foundation Courses. Yeomans essay focuses on the highly influential Foundation Course Hamilton developed at Newcastle University, showing its intellectual basis and describing the particular character of the work he initiated there. The two essays included here look at British art education in nineteenth century Canada, and the influence of European Modernist Art on Japanese art education in the early twentieth century.

It has been generally accepted that Walter Smith, a former headmaster at Leeds, was singularly responsible for taking the South Kensington system to North America. Graeme Chalmers questions this orthodoxy, suggesting a more textured reading of the situation. Okazaki shows that the export of the South Kensington system was not confined to British colonies, but was introduced to Japan by Japanese art educators who had travelled to America and Europe experiencing versions of the system first hand.

Key elements of the system were incorporated in Japanese art education by the first decade of the twentieth century in the New Textbooks of Drawing. The backlash came with the short-lived Free Drawing Movement. Okazaki places the development of the movement in its wider socio-political context in Japan. In a carefully balanced account he shows how it was that European ideas of child-centred art education fused with exposure to European modernist art seemed a much more attractive approach and steadily eroded interest in the official national textbooks.

But it is important to set this in context. Hence, economic history broke away from social history, which in turn gave rise to research in labour history, and so on, elevating them all to positions of equal importance. Early historians of art and design education were presumably content to view the subject as one of these discrete sub-divisions.

For example, Peter Burke in his New Perspectives on Historical Writing noted that these sub-groups tend not to communicate with each other. Clearly, historians of art and design education are not exempt from these problems, and as the discipline grows and creates its own sub-divisions the problem of talking to each other will become more acute. By this means histories of art and design education will remain vital and alive. Drawing manuals possess the further advantage of reflecting a wide and eclectic range of practices, often blurring or cutting across otherwise rigid barriers within nineteenth-century education demarcating divisions of age, gender, class or nationality. Despite their potential usefulness, however, surprisingly little has been published on the subject. Like all illustrated books of the time, these tended to be fairly expensive items, a fact which necessarily limited their circulation. A series of technological developments throughout the first three decades of the century including the coming of the steam printing press and the increased use of wood pulp as a raw material for paper-making greatly reduced publishing costs, contributing significantly to the expansion of a new reading public among the middle and working classes.

Drawing books published in parts proved to be extremely popular, especially in the segment of elementary and technical manuals geared to artisans and mechanics, who might not be able to afford a single large outlay but were willing to invest smaller amounts over an extended period of time.

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A successful manual easily achieved four or five editions in as many years, and the most popular ones sometimes reached upwards of ten editions in a career spanning as many as 30 years or more in print. The Department of Science and Art was itself a powerful agency for the dissemination of manuals — sold, issued and distributed under its authority by the publishers Chapman and Hall. Manuals often came recommended with the sanction of the Department, the Society of Arts, the Committee of Council on Education and other educational or charitable entities.

Although both these books still bore a strong stylistic resemblance to the widely prevalent manuals of amateur sketching authored by noted landscape painters like David Cox, Samuel Prout or John Varley, they made an effort to adapt the tone and content of their lessons to a new audience which might possess neither previous experience of drawing nor ready access to private instruction.

The latter book appealed quite unashamedly to the pretensions towards gentility of its eager middle-class public, couching the simplicity of its method in artfully Romantic assertions of the elegance of drawing as a pastime. Although the question and answer structure of the catechism left little room for anything substantial in the way of visual instruction, the fact that drawing was considered to be a form of knowledge worthy of inclusion in a popular educational series even at this early date is significant.

Growing public and political agitation over education during the s contributed to changing all that, however.

The formation of the Committee of Council on Education provided an important incentive by creating an authority interested in bringing out standard classroom texts, particularly in terms of drawing instruction which had not heretofore been perceived to be an integral part of education by any of the sectarian publishing societies.